The Angles (Latin: Anglii) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Britain in the post-Roman period. They founded several of the kingdoms ofAnglo-Saxon England, and their name is the root of the name England. The name comes from the district of Angeln, an area located on the Baltic shore of what is now Schleswig-Holstein.
Wikipedia contributors. “Angles.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 28 Jun. 2016. Web. 16 Jul. 2016.
The Saxons (Latin: Saxones, Old English: Seaxe, Old Saxon: Sahson, Low German: Sassen, German: Sachsen, Dutch: Saksen) were a group of Germanic tribes first mentioned as living near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany (Old Saxony), in late Roman times. They were soon mentioned as raiding and settling in many North Sea areas, as well as pushing south inland towards the Franks. Significant numbers settled in large parts of Great Britain in the early Middle Ages and formed part of the merged group of Anglo-Saxons who eventually organised the first united Kingdom of England.
Wikipedia contributors. “Saxons.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 15 Jul. 2016. Web. 16 Jul.i2016.
In general the Angles and Saxons provide protection to the Britons from invaders.
From 590–660 Christianity spread across great Britain uniting the various tribes under one religion. This was the time of the warrior, he who won ruled. But there was no single king or lord that ruled all of Britain.
Monasteries grew all over Britain and became centers of learning and power. Monks and priests were taught Latin and Greek and became advisors to local Kings and lords who could not read and write on the same level. Bibles were translated, transcribed, and illuminated at monasteries by hand.
The rise of King Alfred the Great (878–899) to oppose the Viking raids changed the political and educational landscape. He encouraged learning for the sons of freemen in both English and Latin leading to the preservation of the language.
Edgar the Peaceful or the Peaceable, was King of England from 959 to 975. He untied the separate areas of Britain into what it is today uniting all of the kingdoms under his rule.
Upon his death to a large extent this unification fell apart leading to a resumption of the Viking raids and a weakening of Anglo-Saxon leadership in government.
The Battle of Hastings in 1066 is won by William of Normandy leading to 400 years of Franco-Norman rule.